This post examines the potential usefulness of meta-analysis for winning grants. It looks at how grant seekers can apply available research in seeking funding for parental involvement programs designed to improve academic achievement in Grades K-12. The post’s few examples **by no means **exhaust the sources of evidence available to applicants seeking grants to improve educational outcomes – or outcomes in other domains for which grants may be awarded.

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**Effect Sizes of Overall Parental Involvement Programs**

In a meta-analysis (2012), Dr. William Jeynes, using Hedge’s *g*, found that overall parental involvement programs yielded effect sizes of **0.19 **to **0.31 **standard deviations (SD) on academic achievement in urban elementary schools, and of **0.32 **to **0.35 **SD on academic achievement in urban secondary schools. Effect sizes varied by specific measures of academic achievement – e.g., standardized tests (**0.31 **and **0.33 **SD) or non-standardized assessments (**0.19 **and **0.32 **SD). The magnitudes of such effect sizes are small, but positive.

For urban Latino students in Grades K-5, in Reading, in the context of overall parental involvement programs in urban schools, an effect size of **0.31 **SD on standardized tests equates to gains of **0.17 **to **0.6 **school years; an effect size of **0.19 **SD on non-standardized assessments equates to gains of **0.1 **to **0.4 **school years.

For urban Latino students in Grades 6-12, in Reading, in the same context, an effect size of **0.33 **SD on standardized tests equates to gains of **0.9 **to **5.5 **school years; an effect size of **0.32 **SD on non-standardized assessments equates to gains of **0.83 **to **5.3 **school years.

**Effect Sizes of General Parental Involvement**

In a meta-analysis (2017), Dr. William Jeynes, using Hedge’s *g*, found that general parental involvement yielded overall effect sizes on academic achievement of urban Latino students of **0.30 **standard deviations (SD) in Grades K-5, **0.29 **SD in Grades 6-12, and **0.45 **SD in Grades K-12. Overall effect sizes varied by specific measures of academic achievement among urban Latino students – standardized tests (**0.24**), non-standardized assessments (**0.64**), or behavior (**0.16**). The magnitudes of such effect sizes are small to moderate, and positive.

In the context of general parental involvement, an overall effect size of **0.30 **SD equates to gains of **0.17 **to **0.6 **school years in Reading for urban Latino students in Grades K-5; and an effect size of **0.29 **SD equates to gains of **0.87 **to **5.0 **school years in Reading for urban Latino students in Grades 6-12. The magnitudes of such effect sizes are small, but positive.

For urban Latino students in Grades K-5, in Reading, in the context of specific measures of academic achievement, a gain of **0.24 **SD on standardized tests equates to gains of **0.13 **to **0.5 **school years; a gain of **0.64 **SD on non-standardized assessments equates to a gain of **0.4 **to**1.3 **school years; and a gain of **0.16 **SD on behavior equates to gains of **0.08 **to **0.32 **school years.

For urban Latino students in Grades 6-12, in Reading, in the context of specific measures of academic achievement, a gain of **0.24 **SD on standardized tests equates to gains of **0.67 **to **4.1 **school years; a gain of **0.64 **SD on non-standardized assessments equates to a gain of **1.85 **to **10.9 **school years; and a gain of **0.16 **SD on behavior equates to gains of **0.48 **to **2.7 **school years in Reading for urban Latino students in Grades 6-12.

**Observations**

Both overall and general programs of parental involvement appear to yield small to moderate – and positive – effect sizes on several measures of academic achievement among urban Latino students in Grades K-12. Such research is potentially useful as an element of an evidence-based rationale for a plan of action in a competitive grant proposal.

Available meta-analyses – such as the examples provided here – demonstrate the practical significance of overall and general parental involvement on measures of the academic achievement of urban students. Their findings are useful evidence of the likelihood that implementing such programs will contribute to improved educational outcomes. As such, these meta-analyses – and others similar to them – are welcome and useful resources for applicants wishing to persuade public and private funders to award grants to create or expand programs of parental involvement in Grades K-12.