**Introduction **

This post is about uses of logic models in evaluation. It is one in a series about logic models and competitive grant seeking. Its context is the United States of America. Other posts discuss the uses of logic models throughout proposal planning and project implementation, types of logic models, typical elements in logic models, samples of logic models, and other topics.

**Outcomes and Outputs**

Logic models are versatile tools. Not only are they useful in planning and implementing a proposal, they are just as useful in creating an evaluation design.

An outcome is not the same as an output. An output is a product or an event and is reported as a number. An outcome is a logical result of an output. It is reported both as a number (after collecting the data) and a ratio. It may help to think of an output as a means (to an end), and an outcome as an end.

Outputs |
Outcomes |

Installed 50 corner streetlights. | Reduced intersection traffic accidents by 53%. |

Held 6 interdiction workshops. | Increased border drug seizures by 71%. |

Created 10 classroom blog websites. | Increased writing scores by 9%. |

Developed 10 science lab lessons. | Increased science lab scores by 12%. |

Trained 700 program volunteers. | Reduced afterschool adult-child ratio by 50%. |

A logic model for an Evaluation Plan has seven basic elements:

**Outcome:**What do you to happen because of your project?**Indicator:**What are the observable and measurable behaviors and conditions?**Target Audience:**What is the specific population to be measured?**Data Source:**What are the source(s) of information about the behaviors and conditions to be measured?**Data Interval:**When are data to measure the indicator to be collected?**Target:**What is the amount of change you desire to occur?**Results:**What was the actual amount of change as measured using the data collected?

The seven elements can be organized in a table:

Desired Outcome |
Indicator |
Target Audience |
Data Source |
Data Interval |
Target |
Results |

**Examples of a Logic Model for Evaluation**

These examples illustrate how to use a logic model in designing an Evaluation Plan.

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**Example 1: Science Education**

**Outcome:**Participants will be more proficient in Science.**Indicator:**Ratio of tested 6^{th}graders who score proficient or higher**Target Audience:**All 6^{th}graders who participate regularly in the project.**Data Source:**State-mandated 6^{th}grade assessments.**Data Interval:**After test administration in April 2019.**Target:**75% or more of 500 participating and tested 6^{th}graders**Results:**425 or 86.7% of 490 6^{th}graders scored proficient or higher.

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**Example 2: Violence Prevention**

**Outcome:** Fewer participants will be suspended for fighting in school.

**Indicator:**Ratio of HS students suspended for fighting.**Target Audience:**All HS students who participate regularly in the project.**Data Source:**District Title IV suspensions and expulsions reports.**Data Interval:**After end of each academic ranking period and end of school year.**Target:**5% or fewer of 1200 participating high school students.**Results:**48 or 4.06% of 1180 high school students were suspended for fighting in school during the school year.

**Example 3: Literacy Development**

**Outcome:**More 6^{th}, 7^{th}, and 8^{th}graders will read for pleasure.**Indicator:**Ratio of students who read for pleasure during the school year.**Target Audience:**All 6^{th}, 7^{th}, and 8^{th}graders who participate regularly in the project.**Data Source:**Surveys of participating students and their parents/guardians.**Data Interval:**After end of each academic ranking period and end of school year.**Target:**65% or more of 900 participating and surveyed middle school students**Results:**620 or 71.75% of 864 respondents reported reading for pleasure during the school year.